Persons of Ancient Athens
This database search complements the published volumes of Persons of Ancient Athens. Description of Entries, listed in the cell below, explains how data is presented. Searches may be made to 10,000 names available in the ATHENIANS database beta, gamma, and delta. The possible searches range from simple searches such as selecting every person with a particular name, or in a particular deme, or of a particular tribe(phyle) or of a specified profession to more sophisticated searches, such as to find all Athenians who lived between specified years and/or are related to a certain person and/or are attested in a class of document, etc. Each database can also be listed entirely.
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Description of Entries
The DATA OF ATHENIANS have been entered into the computer in two relations or tables, a Main relation of 15 attributes or fields, and a Ref(erence)s relation of 8 attributes or fields. 1 The printed volumes are being generated from a program written by P. M. W. Matheson which arranges the 13 attributes of the main relation (two attributes, datefrom and dateto, designed specifically for computer searching, have been omitted from the printed version) into two “paragraphs,” one containing information about the person’s name, the other containing information about the person’s identification, or activity. The seven attributes of the references relation (omitting the identifying number, which is repeated from Main in Refs) also appear as two “paragraphs,” first the reference and all additional information about it, and then the text of that reference. In the descriptions below the names of the appropriate attributes are inset in italics into the text describing them. Sample entries are given on page xi.
num A six-digit number unique to each entry. Gaps have been left in the sequence of numbers for addenda. An asterisk (*) preceding the number indicates that the entry is an auxiliary name, usually a Roman praenomen or gentilicium, the principal entry appearing under the cognomen. Brackets embracing the number signify a ghost name, i.e., a name which owes its existence to an error (demonstrated in the subjoined sequence of references and texts), or a name which is connected with Attica only by accident, e.g., an inscription which has been moved to Athens (pierre errante) or appears in a copy of an inscription at Athens, such as a decree of the Delphian Amphiktiony. The inclusion of these names may be justified on the grounds that the data-base serves also as an index feminarum et virorum of the Corpora of Attic inscriptions.
name The name of the person is written in upper-case Greek unencumbered with brackets and other epigraphical sigla. The order of the listing of the names is based on Kirchner, with the exception of persons whose citizenship or status, e.g., metics or slaves, precluded entry into Prosopographia Attica. The rules of order, outlined in Meritt and Traill, Athenian Agora, vol. XV, p. 349, section 8, are here extended with the inclusion of ethnics:
1. Simple Names
Metics with deme designations are included along with the citizens in category 5. Homonymous fathers and sons are here generally listed together, and there are a few other deviations, particularly within and between groups 2 and 3, the reason for which is normally obvious. A question-mark (?) following the name indicates a doubtful reading or attestation.
Minor orthographical and phonological variations have been leveled in the entry of the name, but major differences in spelling have been retained where practicable, e.g., Aphrodeisios and Aphrodisios. Cross-references (numbered in sequence with the names) will bring the variants to the user’s attention, and the texts of the references in all instances should preserve the precise orthography of the variant which normally will be noted with a following exclamation point (!).
Broken names of which the first letter or letters have been preserved are listed along with the others in alphabetical order. Broken names from which the first letter or letters have been lost will appear in Volume 19. In some instances possible identifications with other complete names in the data-base have been suggested. It is probable that many more of these names will, in future, be found to correspond to other entries. Indeed, their inclusion here will help further the process of identification; in any case, these fragments of names are part of the prosopographical heritage.
A single long dash (—) indicates a break of indeterminable length. A series of dashes indicates the approximate number of lost letters, a series of dots, the exact number. Modifiers of the names, such as neoteros (younger), presbyteros (older), krateros (senatorius, clarissimus), appear immediately following the name.
additional names Roman and alternate names (viz ho kai / he kai) are supplied in parentheses () and will be listed also in additional, complementary entries at the appropriate places in the data-base. In the case of Roman imperial titles only the first entry, i.e., of the earliest identifier, is supplied in this printed version.
place The place, i.e., demotic or ethnic, of the person appears next. Normally the place has been attributed from father to son, and vice versa, without special designation. Other attributions of place, e.g., from prosopographical identification, are marked by an asterisk (*) following the place. As with the name, minor orthographical and phonological variants have been leveled, but major variants, e.g., Milesios and Meilesios, have been preserved. Modifiers of place, such as the designations kathyperthen (Upper) and hypenerthen (Lower) with the demotics, follow the place.
phyle The Athenian phyle or tribe follows the demotic. Independent attestation of the phyle has been distinguished from derivative attestation, i.e., assignment from demotic or other information, by marking the attributed phyle with an asterisk (*). Assignment by secretarial cycles is considered as independent attestation. For the phyle abbreviations used, see the table of phylai below.
link Often the name has been associated with another name, which we have designated loosely as kin. Various forms of association linking the name with a kin have been entered into the computer as a numerical link. For the table of links—the numbers used and their verbal correspondences, which have been substituted in this printing format—see below. It may readily be observed from this table that some links go far beyond what is normally understood as kin.
kin The kin-name is given in the same format as the name, viz upper-case Greek unencumbered with epigraphical sigla, etc. Where the kin has several names, e.g., Roman tria nomina, the full name is supplied without parentheses, in contrast to the entry of the name. Where a place, viz ethnic or demotic, belongs specifically to the kin, it is listed here. Often the kin is connected to another person or persons, and these extended relationships, such as on the same gravestone with —, or who is also wife of —, are given following the place of the kin.
PA, S, and D The name-paragraph is completed with the Prosopographia Attica (PA) number in parentheses. When the person has been treated in J. Sundwall’s Nachtr¨age zur Prosopographia Attica, or in J. K. Davies’ Athenian Propertied Families, an S or D will also appear in the parentheses. A plus (+) or minus (-) sign following the PA number indicates a significant addition to or subtraction from the entry in Prosopographia Attica. Brackets ([ ]) surrounding the PA number indicate a correction of the name, for which normally another entry will appear in the data-base. The accompanying references and texts should in most instances make clear the nature and extent of the corrections. NB. In this format the first listing of a person will contain the maximum amount of information with respect to the place, phyle, and kin of a person, even though not all this information may be attested in the references of the first identifier.
id The identifier lists in chronological order the functions a person performed. This attribute is composed of two elements, a generic portion (16 or fewer characters in the computer entry), e.g., athletic victor, and a variable-length specifying element, e.g., in boys’ boxing first age-group at the Panathenaia. The most common identifiers, in order of frequency, are: ephebe, on a gravestone, bouleutes (councillor), dedicant, epengraphos (in ephebic lists), casualty, and in a catalogue. Occasionally, where the feminine form is rare or hypothetical, a masculine form, e.g. eranistes, has been used for a woman.
date The date immediately follows the identifier. In this attribute when a and p stand for ante and post Christi natum vel aetatem communem, they are invariably last, and a question-mark (?), when employed, immediately precedes them. Almost all the dates are given, as in the Corpora of inscriptions, in Latin abbreviations as follows:
Roman numerals designate centuries. Circa, abbreviated "c" is arbitrarily assigned a span of 20 years (10 before and after) in the datefrom and dateto attributes, which have been designed for computer searches. If we believe the span should be narrower, we allow a window of 10 years (5 before and after), and employ the abbreviation "ca". Where the evidence indicates, a slash is interpreted as either from the middle of one century until the middle of the next or from the end of one century until the beginning of the next. Otherwise a slash is interpreted as identical to a dash, e.g., IV/III and IV-III mean either fourth or third century.
The date of a father (or mother) has been set back 30 years from the date of each identifier of a son (or daughter), or 20 years when the identifier is ephebe, and a c (circa) has been added to the newly computed date. Some of the resulting combinations, e.g., cc, cca, may seem anomalous, but they help to convey the relative degree of uncertainty, and they have a defined numerical meaning for searches. The date of the parent may readily be recovered according to the table of date conversions (see below).
NB. Where the sources suggest wider or narrower parameters, e.g., some editors employ post med. saec. IV ante to include the Hellenistic and/or Roman periods, we modify accordingly, and show such modifications in the date entered in the computer data-base by an asterisk before (for datefrom) or after (for dateto) the Roman or Arabic numeral; these asterisks do not appear in the printed version.
The dates, including many new dates, are generally supplied without comment. A table of the problematical dates of the epigraphical documents, which will take into consideration the most recent chronological studies, will be supplied along with the indexes in Volume 20.
stat The next item of the identifier-paragraph, status, supplies the sex, citizenship, and social status, using the following abbreviations:
Where appropriate, a description of the type of name, e.g., aux(illary), alt(ernate), over-restored, doubtful name, is attached to the status.
NB and kincom Following status appear items from the two comment attributes in the Main relation, of which the most important are the directives to other entries in the database, Possibly the same as, Relative of (usually specifying the relationship), etc. In the athenians project every effort has been made to be as critical and as accurate as possible in the identification of individuals. The result has been a large-scale dismemberment of the traditional identifications in Attic prosopography. Generally, only the most probable identifications have been retained within the same record, i.e., under the same number, and many of the single entries of PA have been split into separate files joined by the comment Possibly the same as. A considerable number of new identifications have also been made under this heading. At this stage no attempt has been made to evaluate the relative probability of the identifications supplied with the designation Possibly to be identified with, which varies from very probable to barely possible. A few traditional, but now unlikely, identifications have been retained under this designation.
The heading Treated in . . . directs the reader to a discussion of the individual’s family, normally with stemma. In some instances the person under discussion may be an addition to the published stemmata. The listing of references such as PA, NPA, or APF, etc. does not necessarily imply acceptance of the stemmata offered in these works. Indeed, it will often be clear from the identifications and relationships proposed in this volume that the published stemmata must be revised. The data-base was designed, in part, to facilitate the computerized generation of stemmata (Horos 7, 1989, p. 58). Treatment of the individual, as opposed to the family, in such works as TrGF, PCG, or Stefanes (sometimes with more documentation than offered here) is prefaced by the designation "Cf."
Other items of more particular nature are listed at this point, viz archons of insecure date, the profession and other data of the kin whose broken names will not be included in the database until the publication of Volume 19, and comments on individual attributes.
Each identifier for an individual is followed by the reference or references which attest that activity. For the larger files, e.g. Aeschines and Aeschylus, the documentation is intended to be representative rather than exhaustive. The references are laid out as follows:
refno and reftie The purpose of the References relation is to provide full documentation for the data in the Main relation. To this end a series of references has often been supplied employing decimal numbers and a set of symbols to indicate cognate texts. References to the same lemma are numbered 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc., and the second and following entries have a symbol to their left, reftie, to indicate the relationship of that text to the preceding text. The table of REFTIE SYMBOL is given below.
ref and refline The most commonly abbreviated references are those to Hesperia (H) and to the Corpus of Greek Inscriptions (Roman numerals, to which one should prefix I.G.) The page number, e.g. p18, refers to the page on which the text appears. The number following the page number, e.g., p50 18, or in the place of the page number, e.g. 18, is the text or inscription number. For a list of the abbreviations used, see the table of ABBREVIATIONS OF REFERENCES below.
class Following the line number there appears in parentheses a brief classification of the type of document. This has been entered numerically in the computer; the full listing, with the abbreviations used in the printed text, is given in the CLASS table below. Note that an asterisk (*) preceding the entry indicates a metrical text (represented by a negative number in the database).
text The text, usually in Greek, occasionally in Latin, is supplied with full epigraphical sigla commencing on a new line immediately below the reference. The text includes as much of the context of the inscription as is required to establish the full name and activity of the individual. In the case of a patronym or matronym, normally only the evidence for the name, place, and kin is supplied, unless the name of the kin lacks initial letters, in which instance the full text is given.
Certain modifications of conventional epigraphical practice, some of them forced on us by the computer, have been implemented in this project. Parentheses ( ) indicate supplements to original texts, whatever the reason (demonstrable or implied), for the abbreviation. NB. This involves a slight departure from the Leiden conventions, and occasionally with older texts it has been difficult to determine whether there has been a correction of or a supplement to the lemma. Angled brackets enclose corrections to a text; the original will appear on a new line below the text with the designation Text . . . . A dot indicates only a single missing letter. A stop is indicated by a raised dot, or Greek colon. A series of three such dots signifies an abridgement of a text. No full stops are used after abbreviations in the text; these are often supplemented in parentheses.
The way in which missing letters in names are represented in the Main relation fields name, place, and kin has already been mentioned (a precise number of dots, an approximate number of dashes, or a long dash for an undetermined number; see p. vi). When the text is given in the References relation, however, lacunose texts are represented as follows:
Vacat is treated in a similar fashion, viz :
A line break is indicated by a single slash /, a metrical break which is not a line break (and is not indicated by the disposition of the text) by a vertical line |. A double slash, //, indicates a break of more than one line in a continuous text. A triple slash, ///, indicates a non-continuous text, i.e., the gap contains a lacuna. Slashes enclosing Roman numerals indicate column numbers in a text. As stated above, orthographical and phonological variant forms are followed by an exclamation point (!).
In other respects our system follows the Leiden conventions, viz brackets enclose letters lost from ancient texts through damage, and curled brackets enclose superfluous letters added by the ancient letter-cutter. Texts legible in rasura are enclosed in double brackets; restored texts in rasura are marked by double plus single brackets. A dot under a letter indicates that the preserved traces are compatible with a number of letters, in addition to the one printed in the text.
Within the file of a person an identical text is not repeated from one identifier or kin to the next (normally the full text is supplied with the first entry), and the text for the file of a father, when he is immediately succeeded by his homonymous son (our normal arrangement), will be found only with the latter. A series of three tildes (~ ~ ~) in successive references signifies that the portion or portions of the text not supplied are unchanged from the preceding entry, i.e., only changes (with enough material to identify the context) normally are printed. The attribution of a phyle is shown by a Roman numeral within parentheses. Texts which have been reprinted without restudy are normally cited in the commentary following the designation “Cf.” The Roman numerals sometimes used by editors to identify homonymous members of a family have been omitted from the texts.
additional ids, kin Additional identifiers, i.e., functions a person performed, with dates, references, and texts (if different from those of earlier identifiers) will follow. Finally, additional kin or relatives, with dates, references, and texts (if not previously cited) are listed. The line numbers in these instances refer to the lemmata where the additional relatives are cited.
For explanation and listings of the labels in italics to left and right of the text, see the appropriate description above (pp. v–xi) and the tables following (pp. xii-xviii).
NB. When the exact nature of the link is uncertain, it is entered as a negative number, and printed here with a question mark (?) after it.
0 perhaps related to 28 niece of 72 earlier colleague of
NB. Ephebic conversions, when different from normal conversions, are given in parentheses.
Date Assigned span Date/parent (ephebic) Assigned span (ephebic)
IVa -400 to -300 c IVa -400 to -300
equals (=) the present text is identical to the preceding
ABBREVIATIONS OF REFERENCES
NB. The name in square brackets (abbreviated to initials in succeeding entries) at the termination of some references is that of the compiler of the segment of the Meritt file according to the incomplete list of entries on the cards at the beginning of alpha. This table has been compiled by computer from this volume and all preceding volumes.
1 Descriptions of the technical aspects of athenians, including examples of computer searching and correcting facilities, were published by D. C. Tsichritzis and J. S. Traill in Beta-Gamma (Computer Systems Research Group, University of Toronto, Technical Report, Toronto, Canada, June 1983), and by J. S. Traill and P. M. Wallace Matheson in Horos 7, 1989, pp. 53–76.
Copyright ©2012 Athenians Project, Toronto, Canada